Most of us would have started with learning user-friendly and straightforward languages like Java, C, C++, etc. The generation before that would have learned programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal, etc. learning a language which the computer understands can be quite difficult in the beginning, but slowly you get the hang of these programming languages.


The following are the world’s most difficult programming languages to learn:


Sean Heber developed COW in the year 2003. COW is an esoteric language and was designed to experiment with various ideas.  The language was intended to be hard, and it was not mean to be used for practical purpose. COW is in the same computational class as a Turing machine and is thus said to be Turing complete. Using the language, you can perform any calculations done by the Turing machine. COW programming language is a variant of Brainfuck, and it was designed mostly for fun purposes. The instructions in the program are moos, any other characters other than moos are considered as comments.


As the name suggests, the language is quite hard to learn and was created by Urban Muller in the year 1993. The brainfuck program has only eights commands, and it operates in an array of memory cells. Using brainfuck, you can create a sophisticated program. The memory cells are also known as tape, and each cell is set to zero.


INTERCAL is also an esoteric programming language and was created by Don Woods and James M. Lyon. Both the creators of this program were students of the Princeton University. They created INTERCAL as a parody, and the language does not have any pronounceable acronym and thus making the program very hard to understand.


Whitespace was released in the year 2003 on 1st April and was developed by Chris Morris. Many people thought that it was an April fool’s joke. As the name suggests, the language contains only tabs, spaces and line feed. Its interpreter will ignore all the nonspace characters. One interesting fact about this whitespace program is that it can easily be contained within another program which is written in another language other than the languages which consider whitespaces.


Malbolage was invented by Ben Olmstead in the year 1998. The language was named after the 8th circle of hell in Inferno. The program was designed to be impossible to use. Malboge is more difficult than most of the other esoteric programming languages. It took around two years for the first program to be written in Malbolge. No human has ever written a program using this language; not even the Ben Olmsted has written any programs in Malbolage. The first program was generated by an algorithm named beam search which was designed by Andrew Cooke and it was implemented in Lisp.